Level 1 Diagnostics
Heart Disease is the #1 killer in the United States
Early detection of risk factors is key to preventing cardiovascular disease.
Heart disease is a term for all conditions that affect the heart. The leading cause of heart attacks and stroke is coronary
artery disease. The most common cause of coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis, a condition that occurs when plaque
builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart.
There may be no symptoms before a heart attack or stroke. It is important to have comprehensive preventative testing
that can give you a look into the state of your cardiovascular system.
Risk factors for heart disease and stroke:
• High blood pressure
• High cholesterol
• Cigarette smoking
• Poor diet and physical inactivity
• Overweight and obesity
• Family history of cardiovascular disease or sudden cardiac death
Cardiovascular Disease & Autonomic Nervous System Screenings
Heart Rate Variability (HRV): The heart rate variability test evaluates the balancing act between the sympathetic nervous system (fight and flight) and the parasympathetic nervous system (rest and digest). The autonomic nervous system may undergo injury as part of several different degenerative neurologic diseases. An imbalance in heart rate variability is the #1 risk factor for sudden cardiac death. This test shows the effects of acute and chronic stress.
Pulse Wave Analysis: The pulse wave is a snapshot into the cardiovascular system and evaluates arterial elasticity (arterial stiffness), which is related to atherosclerosis. Arterial stiffness is a major cardiovascular risk factor.
Heart Rate: The heart rate is the number of times your heart beats in one minute. 50-80 beats per minute is considered optimal. Any change from normal heart rate can indicate a medical condition.
Pulse Oximetry: The amount of oxygen in the blood is measured. A range of 96% to 100% oxygen in the blood is generally considered normal. Anything below 90% could quickly lead to life-threatening complications.
BMI Body Mass Index (BMI): BMI ranges link the relationship between body weight and disease. This test guides in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and Type 2 Diabetes:
– Excess body fat around the waist
– High triglyceride level
– Low HDL cholesterol level
– High blood pressure
– High fasting blood sugar
Having one of these conditions does not mean that you have metabolic syndrome. However, any of these conditions increase your risk of serious disease. Having more than one of these may increase your risk even more. If you have metabolic syndrome or any of its components, aggressive lifestyle changes can delay or even prevent the development of serious health problems.
Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) and Toe-Brachial Index (TBI): If there is a large difference in the pressures, it signals peripheral artery disease (PAD). These tests are a quick and non-invasive assessment for peripheral vascular disease.
Murmur Detection: Special software in conjunction with an electronic stethoscope allows easy differentiation from Class I and Class III heart murmurs. The electronic stethoscope records 15 seconds of heart sounds at the four main auscultation locations: aortic, pulmonary, tricuspid and apex. The heart sound is immediately analyzed and S1 and S2 sound pulses and murmurs are detected.
Carotid Intima Media Thickness: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness is a measurement of the thickness of the innermost layers of the carotid artery wall by ultrasound imaging. This is where atherosclerosis begins. A video of the carotid arteries is made using ultrasound. It is then analyzed for the presence of atherosclerosis and detection of soft and hard plaque at its earliest stages.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm is a condition in which the lining of the blood vessel called the aorta is enlarged within the abdomen. Ultrasound is a non-invasive tool used to image and measure the abdominal aorta. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are dangerous because they weaken the aortic wall and may rupture, causing life threatening bleeding into the abdomen. A ruptured aorta can cause death in four minutes. Mortality rate in hospitals for a ruptured aortic aneurysm is 60-90%.
Sudomotor Function: The sudomotor function test measures the autonomic nerves that control sweating and is a useful tool in assessing autonomic nervous system disorders. Sudomotor testing measures the electrical potential difference caused by the electrochemical reaction of electrodes that are applied to the skin and are stimulated by a low voltage of variable amplitude. Diabetes patients suffer from metabolic impairment and related inflammatory processes.
Nitric Oxide Saliva: Nitric oxide is one of the most important signaling molecules in the body and it is vital for healthy circulation. Elevated nitric oxide levels help the body to support cardiovascular health, increase blood flow, enhance endurance, improve mental clarity and delay vascular aging.
Nitric Oxide is proven to be important in the following cellular activities:
• Helps memory and behavior by transmitting information between nerve cells in the brain
• Assists the immune system at fighting off bacteria and defending against tumors
• Regulates blood pressure by dilating arteries
• Reduces inflammation
• Improves sleep quality
• Increases endurance and strength
• Assists in gastric motility